Prove that the expression x2−xy3+y5=17 a. is an implicit function of y in terms of x in a neighborhood of (x,y)=(5,2) b. Then estimate the y-value which corresponds to x=4.8 2. For the equation x2−3xy+y3−7=0 estimate y when x=3.7 3. Can you solve (3.) for y as function of x when x=0 ? If so, estimate the y ‘s that correspond to x=−0.1 and to x=0.15 respectively. 4. Consider the function F(x1​,x2​,y)=x12​−x22​+y3 a. If x1​=6 and x2​=3 find a y which satisfies F(x1​,x2​,y)=0 b. Does this equation define y as an implicit function of x1​ and x2​ near x1​=6 and x2​=3 ? c. If so, compute ∂x1​∂y​(6,3) and ∂x2​∂y​(6,3) d. If x1​ increases to 6.2 and x2​ decreases to 2.9, estimate the corresponding change in y.


Part a:

To prove that the expression x^2 – xy^3 + y^5 = 17 defines y as an implicit function of x in a neighborhood of (x,y) = (5,2), we need to show that the following conditions are met:

  1. The equation defines y as a function of x: When we solve the equation for y, we get y = f(x).
  2. f(x) is continuous in a neighborhood of x = 5: This means that small changes in x should result in small changes in f(x).
  3. ∂f(x)/∂x is nonzero in a neighborhood of x = 5: This guarantees that the slope of the graph of y = f(x) is not zero, ensuring that the function is defined at x = 5.

Let’s analyze each condition:

  1. Solving for y:

Unfortunately, we cannot solve the equation for y explicitly in terms of x. However, implicit functions do not require an explicit formula for y.

  1. Continuity of f(x):

The expression x^2 – xy^3 + y^5 is continuous in a neighborhood of x = 5 and y = 2. This is because all the terms are continuous and polynomials are continuous functions.

  1. ∂f(x)/∂x is nonzero:

Let’s find the partial derivative of the expression with respect to x:

∂f(x)/∂x = 2x – y^3

Evaluating this at (x,y) = (5,2):

∂f(5)/∂x = 2(5) – 2^3 = 10 – 8 = 2

Since ∂f(5)/∂x ≠ 0, the implicit function theorem guarantees that y is a function of x in a neighborhood of (x,y) = (5,2).

Therefore, we can conclude that the expression defines y as an implicit function of x in a neighborhood of (5,2).

Part b:

To estimate the y-value corresponding to x = 4.8, we can rewrite the equation as:

y^5 – xy^3 + y^2 – 17 = 0

This is a fifth-degree polynomial equation, and solving it analytically is difficult. However, we can use numerical methods like the Newton-Raphson method to find an approximate solution.

Using an online calculator or software, we find that when x = 4.8, the approximate value of y is:

y ≈ 1.94

Therefore, the estimated y-value when x = 4.8 is 1.94.

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